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History

Established in 1956, the American Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA) continues to be only association devoted exclusively to the medical assisting profession.

Review the major achievements in the history of the AAMA here.


1955

The Kansas Medical Assistants Society initiated a meeting in Kansas City, Kan., to consider the formation of a national organization.

The name of the American Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA) was accepted by vote.

1956

The Charter Meeting was held in Milwaukee.

The Constitution and Bylaws was adopted and permanent officers were elected.

The American Medical Association (AMA) passed a resolution commending the objectives of AAMA.

Carmen Kline, CMA-A (KS), was co-chair with Maxine Williams, CMA-A (KS), for the AAMA Founding Meeting.

1957

Maxine Williams, CMA-A (KS), was elected the first AAMA president.

At the first Annual Meeting, the House of Delegates was accepted as the legislative body of the national association.

At this meeting, the first educational sessions were designed to increase the professionalism of medical assistants.

The first official publication, The Ambassador, was published.

1958

Trilevel membership was approved with one membership card for local, state, and national membership.

A national emblem was selected.

1959

AAMA was incorporated in the State of Illinois as a not-for-profit professional organization.

The national headquarters was opened in Chicago.

The Scholarship Fund was started with a $200 contribution from Maxine Williams. It was later renamed the Maxine Williams Scholarship Fund.

A Certification Committee was appointed to develop the AAMA Certification Program.

1960

Trilevel membership in AAMA was voted as mandatory.

1961

The Certifying Board was established.

1962

A sample examination for Certified Medical Assistants (CMAs) was given at the convention with no credit given.

1963

The first certification examinations were given in California, Kansas, and Florida.

1966

A special committee was appointed to develop curriculum standards for the training of medical assistants, as a prelude to collaborating with the AMA in the accreditation of educational programs on a postsecondary level.

1968

The AAMA Endowment was established as a 501(c)(3)public foundation for educational purposes.

The name of the official publication was changed to The Professional Medical Assistant.

1969

Essentials of an Approved Educational Program for Medical Assistants were approved by the AMA Council on Medical Education and the AMA House of Delegates.

Five two-year educational programs were accredited by the AMA Council on Medical Education in collaboration with the AAMA Program Approval Committee.

Student and faculty memberships were approved as new categories of membership.

The Education Council was created to coordinate the educational activities of the association.

1971

Certification eligibility requirements were broadened to include medical assisting instructors and students.

The AMA House of Delegates approved a set of revised Essentials for a basic one-year curriculum, thus allowing for the evaluation of programs not only in community and junior colleges, but also in vocational-technical, proprietary, and military-based institutions.

1972

A committee was formed to begin work on a guided home study course.

AMA/AAMA filed a petition with the U.S. Office of Education seeking recognition as the official accrediting agency for medical assisting programs.

1973

The Curriculum Review Committee became the Curriculum Review Board.

1974

The U.S. Office of Education recognized AMA/AAMA as an official accrediting agency for medical assisting programs in public and private institutions.

1975

The revised certification program, consisting of a basic test plus three specialty examinations (Administrative, Clinical, and Pediatric), was implemented.

The name of the In-Service Education Committee was changed to the Continuing Education Committee.

The AAMA House of Delegates approved the adoption of the Continuing Education Unit (CEU) and stipulated that CEUs meet the minimum criteria as promulgated by the National Task Force on the Continuing Education Unit.

1976

The 20th Anniversary of the AAMA was a time for noting progress over two decades of educational service. Membership reached 18,500 with 525 chapters in 47 states and the District of Columbia.

The number of AMA/AAMA accredited postsecondary programs reached 117 in 108 institutions.

The highest number of medical assisting certificates—1,959—were awarded, making a total of 5,197 since the program's inception.

A new category of membership—international—was instituted.

The Task Descriptor Project was initiated whereby an analysis of 475 medical assisting tasks in 18 categories was undertaken.

Continued recognition for a four-year period was extended by the U.S. Office of Education to the Curriculum Review Board in its collaborative accrediting role with AMA.

The Continuing Education Committee officially launched the CEU Approval Program, whereby state societies and chapters that met specific guidelines could offer CEU credit to participants.

1977

Active membership was opened to any practicing medical assistant who achieved AAMA certification.

The National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) was engaged as the test consultant for the AAMA certification examinations.

Responsibility for the accreditation of one- and two-year medical assisting programs was transferred from the AMA Council on Medical Education to the AMA-sponsored but independently operated Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation (CAHEA). The AAMA Endowment's Curriculum Review Board remained the recommending body.

Revised Essentials of an Accredited Educational Program for the Medical Assistant were accepted by the AMA Council on Medical Education.

1978

The Continuing Education Board was formed.

For the first time, the AAMA basic Certification Examination was given twice yearly (in January and June) at test centers nationwide.

1979

The Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process analysis of the medical assisting profession was conducted.

1980

The Certification Revalidation Program was officially launched, allowing Certified Medical Assistants to revalidate their credentialing by either the continuing education or examination methods.

1982

A Legislation Committee Subcommittee on State Legislation was established to monitor grassroots legislation affecting allied health and to encourage member involvement in the legislative process at the local level.

1985

A position statement was adopted that recommended the AAMA advocate the credentialing of medical assistants through certification, with mandatory revalidation, and that a record of Certified Medical Assistants be maintained by AAMA to serve as the verification of certification status.

1988

The AAMA logo was redesigned.

1989

The Continuing Education Board (CEB) began the Sponsor Approval Program.

The new AAMA logo was introduced.

CMA pins were provided without cost for the new CMAs.

1990

The DACUM was published.

1991

The AMA's CAHEA approved the 1991 Essentials and Guidelines for an Accredited Education Program for the Medical Assistant.

The name of the official publication was changed to PMA.

1992

The CEB announced in-house registration of AAMA CEU credits.

AMA proposed that a new, independent accrediting agency be established to replace CAHEA.

1993

To be made effective January 1, 1995, a change in recertification was determined to be implemented:

Of the 60 recertification points needed to revalidate the AAMA CMA credential, 20 must be from AAMA-approved CEU programs. Specialty credentials require five of the 20 points be AAMA-approved CEU programs. Point distribution: General—15; Administrative—15; and Clinical—15; with the remaining 15 applied to any of the three content categories.

The Task Force on Restructuring CAHEA recommended the establishment of the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) as the accrediting agency. Preliminary announcement to dissolve CAHEA was made by AMA.

1994

The 38th House of Delegates passed a Bylaws amendment requiring members of the Board of Trustees to be AAMA Certified Medical Assistants (CMAs) holding current status.

The official dissolution of CAHEA was announced by AMA. The CRB and AAMA Endowment voted to affiliate with the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP).

The AAMA Endowment established the Surveyor Training Fund.

1995

Effective January 1, 1995, a change in recertification was implemented:

Of the 60 recertification points needed to revalidate the AAMA CMA credential, 20 must be from AAMA-approved CEU programs. Specialty credentials require five of the 20 points be AAMA-approved CEU programs. Point distribution: General—15; Administrative—15; and Clinical—15; with the remaining 15 applied to any of the three content categories.

The eligibility pathway for candidates of the AAMA Certification Examination was changed as follows: "Any candidate for the AAMA Certification Exam must be a graduate of a CAAHEP accredited medical assisting program." This requirement would become effective February 1, 1998. This decision was made to require educational standards for medical assistants.

1996

On June 25 AMA House of Delegates granted AAMA Official Observer Status to the HOD.

The Board of Trustees approved plans to establish a website at http://www.aama-ntl.org.

The National Board of Medical Examiners completed the 1996 Occupational Analysis on Medical Assisting.

1997

The Role Delineation Study was completed and replaced the previous DACUM Study.

Approximately 13,000 candidates sat for the Certification Exam, a record number since its inception in 1963.

1998

The Advanced Practice Document was implemented for advanced CE Sessions.

The Certifying Board of the AAMA held a Content-Based Standard Setting Exercise requested by the NBME.

1999

The 1998 Medical Assistants Employment Issues Survey was published in PMA.

The AAMA Endowment approved the 1999 Standards for a Medical Assisting Program.

The Certifying Board established mandatory recertification as follows: "Beginning January 1, 2003, all CMAs currently employed or seeking employment as medical assistants must have current status in order to use the CMA credential."

The Board of Trustees approved the Disciplinary Standards and Procedures for Certified Medical Assistants.

2000

There were more than 470 CAAHEP accredited medical assisting programs in 450 institutions across the United States.

2001

Partial autonomy for the Curriculum Review Board was approved.

2002

Graduates of medical assisting programs accredited by the Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools (ABHES) became eligible for the exam.

The name of the official publication, PMA, was changed to CMA Today.

A CMA pin journeyed into space on board a NASA shuttle.

2003

A third administration of the AAMA CMA Certification/Recertification Examination was established for October.

Health care provider level CPR was determined as mandatory for CMA recertification, effective January 2005.

2004

Partial autonomy for the Certifying Board was approved.

The Advanced Practice of Medical Assisting was edited by the Continuing Education Board.

2005

The new Vision Statement was approved by the Board of Trustees: The vision of the American Association of Medical Assistants is to increase recognition of Certified Medical Assistants as the premier choice in the allied health professions.

2006

The AAMA held its 50th Annual Convention in Milwaukee, home to the association's charter meeting in 1956.

The keynote speaker was AAMA Founding Member and Past President (1963) Alice Budny. Fifteen AAMA past presidents were introduced to the 50th House of Delegates. AAMA Founding Members Roberta Antrim, CMA-AC, MHR, and Sylvia Klotz, CMA-C, also were presented to the House of Delegates.

A slide presentation of the past 50 years of AAMA activities was prepared and presented by AAMA Past President (1992) Mary Lou Allison, CMA-C.

2007

AAMA successfully defended "Certified Medical Assistant®" trademark registration in a lawsuit brought by American Medical Technologists (AMT).

The annual meeting name was officially changed from convention to conference.

Funds were allocated for the AAMA president and vice president to represent AAMA at the annual meeting of the Professional Association of Health Care Office Management.

The Surveyor Training Fund was renamed the Ivy Reade Relkin Surveyor Training Fund.

2008

Effective January 1, 2008, the credential changed from Certified Medical Assistant or CMA to Certified Medical Assistant (AAMA) or CMA (AAMA).

The Curriculum Review Board of the AAMA Endowment was officially renamed the Medical Assisting Education Review Board.

The 2003 AAMA Role Delineation Study: Occupational Analysis of the Medical Assisting Profession was updated to the 2007–2008 Occupational Analysis of the CMA (AAMA) and published in April 2008.

The Oklahoma Medical Assistants Society reorganized and submitted bylaws. At the 2008 Annual Conference, the state society received a new charter.

The Annual Conference was shortened by one day.

The president, vice president, and speaker of the house represented the AAMA as exhibitors at the 2008 annual meeting of PAHCOM.

The Advanced Practice of Medical Assisting (2004) was revised by the Continuing Education Board.

2009

Computer-based testing for the CMA (AAMA) Certification/Recertification Examination began January 5, 2009.

The president and vice president were authorized to represent AAMA as exhibitors at the 2009 annual meeting of the Professional Association of Health Care Office Management (PAHCOM).

CE sessions were authorized to be added on Saturdays of the Annual Conference.

The Maxine Williams Scholarship application was revised.

Executive Director Donald A. Balasa, JD, MBA, represented the AAMA at the December 2008 Conference on Practice Improvement: Blueprint for the Medical Home, sponsored by the American Academy of Family Physicians and the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine in Savannah, Ga.

AAMA joined the Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaboration (PCPCC).

Executive Director Balasa attended the PCPCC stakeholders' working group meeting, "Public and Private Initiatives: Advancing the Patient-Centered Medical Home" in Washington, D.C.

Legal Counsel Balasa's Public Affairs articles from past issues of CMA Today and a link to the new scope of practice were posted on the website of the American College of Physicians.

Executive Director Balasa's article titled "The CMA (AAMA): An Invaluable Asset for the Practice Office" was posted on the American Academy of Pediatrics "Practice Management Online (PMO)" section of its website.

Scope of practice information was posted on the AAMA website.

Executive Director Balasa served on a task force to revise the ASRT Limited X-Ray Machine Operator (LXMO) Curriculum as a result of his involvement with the Alliance for Quality Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy.

Executive Director Balasa and Betty Springer drafted a letter to the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) about the important role of the CMA (AAMA) in providing affordable and accessible health care for all Americans, including seniors.

The Continuing Education Board (CEB) celebrated the release of the new e-Learning Center (e-LC), which offers constant online access to continuing education.

2010

Executive Director Balasa analyzed "The Increasing Role of Medical Assistants in Small Primary Care Physician Practice: Key Issues and Policy Implications" from the Center for the Health Professions at the University of California, San Francisco.

Executive Director Balasa represented the AAMA on an April 27 conference call of the Alliance for Quality Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy, supporting the CARE (Consistency, Accuracy, Responsibility, and Excellence in Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy) Bill as it moved through the legislative process.

Legal Counsel Balasa co-presented "The New Haven Firefighter Decision: What Impact Will It Have?" at the April 2010 Annual Association Law Symposium in Chicago.

The March/April issue of CMA Today was printed on a 30 percent postconsumer waste sheet as part of AAMA's initiative to help protect the environment.

Legal Counsel Balasa responded to right-to-practice questions and issues via phone, phone conference, or e-mail.

The BOT established a technology reserve fund to upgrade database software, redesign the website, and enable e-business functionality.

The BOT granted AAMA affiliation to the Hawaii State Society.

AAMA logo apparel and gear to brand the AAMA became available through mail order.

The BOT approved the development of a social media plan. The AAMA launched a Facebook page in September 2010.

Executive Director Balasa assisted the AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs in updating and modernizing the Code of Medical Ethics in American Medical Associations.

The National Benefits and Financial Services Administration became the new group insurance vendor for AAMA members.

President Boni Buntz, CMA-A (AAMA), Immediate Past President Kathryn Panagiotacos, CMA (AAMA), and Vice President Betty Springer, CMA (AMMA) attended the September 2010 annual Professional Association of Health Care Office Management (PAHCOM) conference as exhibitors.

In August 2010 Executive Director Balasa's Legal Eye: On Medical Assisting blog launched.

2011

The AAMA staff was empowered to participate, recommend, and lead project processes as coleaders with the BOT group chairs and managers. The AAMA staff proved to be excellent partners on projects, bringing their historical knowledge and abilities to the teams.

The AAMA Facebook page reached 5,000 members in March 2011.

Advancing Technology:

  • Continuing Education Board held LiveMeeting—replacing one face-to-face meeting each year and allowing additional meetings as needed.
  • The e-Leaning Center (e-LC) recouped initial cost and became self-sustaining in providing AAMA CEUs to members.
  • Rapid and relevant communication exceeds all expectations:
    • AAMA on Facebook: Open exchange of information and hot topics between members.
    • Legal Eye: On Medical Assisting:  Executive Director Balasa’s official blog
    • AAMA e-Update: Monthly e-newsletter sent to members and subscribers.

AAMA new Mission Statement was approved:

The mission of the American Association of Medical Assistants is to provide the medical assistant professional with education, certification, credential acknowledgment, networking opportunities, scope-of-practice protection, and advocacy for quality, patient-centered, health care.

Definition of Medical Assistant was approved:

Medical assistants are multiskilled members of the health care team who perform administrative and clinical procedures under the supervision of licensed health care providers.

CMA (AAMA) Core Values were developed and approved:

Actively participate in the delivery of quality health care.
Promote patient safety and well-being.

Contribute to a positive health care experience for patients.
Demonstrate integrity and respect, and protect patient confidentiality.

Advocate the essential value of certification and continuing education.
Embrace change, growth, and learning.

The 2011 Salary Survey was completed and published.

The “Who I Am Makes a Difference” program was presented. This “pay it forward” program proved to engage both seasoned medical assistants and students in acknowledging someone who has made a difference in the member’s life.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published the Immunization Training Guide & Practice Procedure Manual. One of the authors of this publication is AAMA Past President Cheryl Vineyard, CMA (AAMA), CPC. The AAP and the AAMA began discussion about how this joint endeavor can be publicized and promoted.

The AAMA was represented at the PAHCOM annual conference in September 2011. Immediate Past President Boni Buntz, CMA-A (AAMA) and Vice President Ann Naegele, CMA (AAMA) served as exhibitors.

Executive Director Balasa represented the AAMA at several professional organization meetings, including the following:

  • Health Professions Network (HPN)
  • Institutes of Medicine (IOM) Workshop on the Allied Health Workforce
  • American Academy of Family Physicians Practice Improvement Conference
  • Alliance for Quality Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy
  • American Society of Association Executives Legal Section Council
  • Institute for Credentialing Excellence
  • National Commission for Certifying Agencies
  • American Medical Association (AMA) Annual Meeting

Executive Director Balasa assisted state societies with ongoing protection and expansion of their scope of practice within their individual states.

2012

President: Ann Naegele, CMA (AAMA)

The 56th Annual Conference held September 7-10, 2012, in Scottsdale, Ariz.

The AAMA Certifying Board implemented a new policy for the CMA (AAMA) Certification Examination. Initial candidates for the exam who meet all graduation program requirements on or after January 1, 2010, have 60 months from the date of program completion to sit for and pass the exam. If the candidate does not pass within this time frame, the candidate is not eligible for the CMA (AAMA) credential. (This policy does not affect candidates graduating before January 1, 2010.)

The AAMA Board of Trustees approved corporate membership in PAHCOM and MGMA, as well as AAMA exhibits at PAHCOM and MGMA annual meetings, to develop professional relationships and further expand awareness of CMAs (AAMA).

The Board of Trustees established an Occupational Analysis Task Force (OATF) and a Core Curriculum Task Force (CCTF). The charge of the OATF is to determine by survey research what duties CMAs (AAMA) are actually doing in the workforce at the present time. The end result will be the issuance of the 2012–2013 Occupational Analysis of the CMA (AAMA). The charge of the CCTF is to develop a core curriculum with the partnership of Certifying Board (CB), Continuing Education Board (CEB), Medical Assisting Educational Review Board (MAERB), OATF, and the Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools (ABHES).

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid ruled in favor of credentialed medical assistants entering medication, laboratory, and radiology orders into the Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) system for purposes of having such entry count toward meeting the meaningful use measures under the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Records Incentive Program. Executive Director Donald Balasa, JD, MBA, advocated for the CMA (AAMA). Due in part to this advocacy, the CMS made this final ruling.

The Board approved the “Membership Matters” PowerPoint presentation for use in marketing.

The delegate and alternate check-in process for the AAMA House of Delegates was streamlined. Instead of issuing “Delegate,” “Alternate,” and “Certificate of Election” cards for the delegates and alternates to present, they were asked to present a current AAMA membership card.

 


Past National Presidents

1957

**Maxine Williams, CMA-A (AAMA)

Kansas

1958

Mary E. Kinn, CMA-A (AAMA), CPS

California

1959

*Lucille T. Swearingen

Oklahoma

1960

*Marian Little

Iowa

1961

Bettye Fisher Baldwin

Indiana

1962

*Lillie Woods

California

1963

Alice F. Budny

Wisconsin

1964

Judy Coleman, CMA-AC (AAMA)

Texas

1965

*Rose M. Merritt

Georgia

1966

*Marge Slaymaker

Kansas

1967

Elvera M. Fischer, RN, CMA-C (AAMA)

Illinois

1968

Margaret Swank Webber, CMA-C (AAMA)

Ohio

1969

*Mildred R. Crawford, CMA-AC (AAMA)

Texas

1970

*Ruth H. Dize

Virginia

1971

*Marie Young

Indiana

1972

*Helen Stephens

Utah

1973

*Elisabeth Massey, CMA-AC (AAMA)

California

1974

Marian G. Cooper, CMA-C (AAMA)

Pennsylvania

1975

Betty Lou Willey, CMA-AC (AAMA)

Michigan

1976

Laura Lockhart Haynes, CMA-AC (AAMA)

Ohio

1977

Joan C. Michaels, CMA-A (AAMA)

North Carolina

1978

*Jeanne Green Bloom, CMA-A (AAMA)

Iowa

1979

*Wini A. Schwartz, CMA-AC (AAMA)

California

1980

*Jean Mobley, CMA-AC (AAMA)

Texas

1981

Dot M. Sellars, CMA-A (AAMA)

Virginia

1982

Mabel Ann Veech, CMA-A (AAMA)

Florida

1983

*Betty J. Mays, CMA-A (AAMA)

Arizona

1984

Janet M. Hensinger Connell, CMA-A (AAMA)

Kentucky

1985

Ivy Reade Relkin, CMA-AC (AAMA), BSEd

New York

1986

*Margaret Corcoran, CMA-AC (AAMA)

New Jersey

1987

Josephine M. Estrada, RN, CMA-AC (AAMA)

Texas

1988

Ann M. Jordana, CMA-AC (AAMA), RT

Florida

1989

Barbara E. Parker, CMA-AC (AAMA), CCS-P

Washington

1990

Juanita M. Blocker, CMA-C (AAMA), LPN

Alabama

1991

Jean E. Keenon, MAEd, CMA-A (AAMA)

Alabama

1992

Mary Lou Allison, CMA-C (AAMA)

Florida

1993

Janice C. Caplan, CMA-A (AAMA)

New York

1994

Geneva H. Straughan, MBA, CMA-A (AAMA)

Texas

1995

Cheryl A. Vineyard, CMA (AAMA), CPC, BUS

New Mexico

1996

Ima L. Backstrom, CMA (AAMA)

Arkansas

1997

Carol S. Clapp, CMA (AAMA), EMT, CPC

Tennessee

1998

Norma J. Parker, CMA (AAMA)

Nebraska

1999

Glenda C. Cartee, CMA (AAMA)

South Carolina

2000

Joyce Y. Nakano, CMA-A (AAMA), BA

California

2001

Mary L. Dey, CMA-AC (AAMA)

Michigan

2002

Julianna S. Drumheller, CMA (AAMA)

Virginia

2003

Luella F. Wetherbee, CMA (AAMA), CPC

Idaho

2004

Theresa A. Rieger, CMA (AAMA), CPC

Oklahoma

2005

Lee F. Damon, CMA (AAMA)

New York

2006

Mary C. Dyer, CMA-A (AAMA)

Texas

2007

Rebecca L. Walker, CMA (AAMA), CPC

North Carolina

2008

Linda A. Brown

New Jersey

2009

Kathryn Panagiotacos, CMA (AAMA)

Florida

2010

Boni Buntz, CMA-A (AAMA)

Colorado

2011

Betty Springer, CMA-C (AAMA)

Florida

2012

Ann Naegele, CMA (AAMA)

Texas

2013 Chris Hollander, CMA (AAMA) Colorado

*Indicates deceased.

**Maxine Williams, CMA-A (AAMA) and *Carmen Kline, CMA-A (AAMA), co-chaired the founding meeting of the AAMA in 1955.

Note: Italics indicate name changes after presidency. Also, the state in which the person resided at the time of presidency is indicated.

Life Members

1967

Mary E. Kinn, CMA-A (AAMA), CPS

1976

*Maxine Williams, CMA-A (AAMA)

1976

*Carmen Kline, CMA-A (AAMA)

1981

Marian G. Cooper, CMA-C (AAMA)

1982

*Mildred R. Crawford, CMA-AC (AAMA)

1983

*Lucille Swearingen

1992

Laura Lockhart Haynes, CMA-AC (AAMA)

1993

Ivy Reade Relkin, CMA-AC (AAMA), BSEd

1995

Josephine M. Estrada, RN, CMA-AC (AAMA)

1996

Jean E. Keenon, MAEd, CMA-A (AAMA)

2000

Crystal Coleman, CMA-AC (AAMA)

2003

Ann M. Jordana, CMA-AC (AAMA), RT

2005

Glenda C. Cartee, CMA (AAMA)

2006

Mary Lou Allison, CMA-C (AAMA)

2009

Janice C. Caplan, CMA-A (AAMA)

2011

Luella F. Wetherbee, CMA (AAMA), CPC

2013 Carol S. Clapp, CMA (AAMA), CPC

*Indicates deceased.

Note: Italics indicate name changes after presidency.

AAMA Annual Conferences

1957

1st

San Francisco

1958

2nd

Chicago

1959

3rd

Philadelphia

1960

4th

Reno, Nev.

1961

5th

Dallas

1962

6th

Detroit

1963

7th

Miami Beach, Fla.

1964

8th

Oklahoma City

1965

9th

New York

1966

10th

St. Louis

1967

11th

Los Angeles

1968

12th

Columbus, Ohio

1969

13th

Honolulu

1970

14th

Des Moines, Iowa

1971

15th

Atlanta

1972

16th

Phoenix

1973

17th

Washington, D.C.

1974

18th

Denver

1975

19th

Louisville, Ky.

1976

20th

Chicago

1977

21st

San Francisco

1978

22nd

Boston

1979

23rd

New Orleans

1980

24th

Kansas City, Kan.

1981

25th

Milwaukee.

1982

26th

Houston

1983

27th

New York

1984

28th

Portland, Ore.

1985

29th

Lexington, Ky.

1986

30th

Chicago

1987

31st

Chicago

1988

32nd

Richmond, Va.

1989

33rd

Charleston, S.C.

1990

34th

(SW) Los Angeles

1991

35th

(NE) Pittsburgh

1992

36th

(NW) Seattle

1993

37th

(MW) Indianapolis

1994

38th

(SE) Orlando, Fla.

1995

39th

(SW) San Antonio

1996

40th

(NE) Philadelphia

1997

41st

(NW) Minneapolis

1998

42nd

(MW) Columbus, Ohio

1999

43rd

(SE) Nashville, Tenn.

2000

44th

(SW) Albuquerque, N.M.

2001

45th

(NE) Buffalo, N.Y.

2002

46th

(NW) Portland, Ore.

2003

47th

(MW) Detroit

2004

48th

(SE) Greensboro, N.C.

2005

49th

(SW) Colorado Springs, Colo.

2006

50th

(MW) Milwaukee

2007

51st

(SE) Louisville, Ky.

2008

52nd

(MW) Chicago

2009

53rd

(SW) Houston

2010

54th

Lake Buena Vista, Fla.

2011

55th

Indianapolis

2012

56th

Scottsdale, Ariz.

2013 57th Atlanta